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Notary Basics: Determining a signer’s willingness

A person with a serious expression holding a document and speaking to two others

Updated 5-6-24. When you notarize a customer’s signature, the customer must sign the document willingly, without being forced. But determining a signer’s willingness can be tricky, especially when pressure comes from a relative or caregiver. These clues can help you tell if a signer is willing or being forced against their will to sign. 

Look for warning signs during the notarization

There are a number of steps you can take to help make the proper judgment call:

Observe the signer’s behavior: Do they appear to be distraught, severely withdrawn, excessively nervous, or fearful? Is the signer acting particularly hesitant or distracted? Are you able to pinpoint the reason for their discomfort?

Observe the surroundings: Watch the behavior of others in the room, especially if they have a vested interest in the documents being signed — such as a power of attorney or real property deed. Does someone nearby — a family member, business partner or caregiver — seem to be making the signer uncomfortable? Are they intimidating the signer, or pressuring the person to sign even when the signer appears reluctant?

Speak privately with the signer: If you feel the signer is being pressured by others in the room, ask to be left alone to speak privately with the signer. Observe if the signer’s behavior changes, or if they continue to hesitate. 

Ask direct questions: If in doubt, don’t be afraid to ask directly: “Are you signing this document of your own free will?” This gives the signer a chance to speak the truth. 

Make eye contact: A signer’s ability to look you in the eyes may be telling. However, a lack of eye contact alone isn’t a sufficient reason to be suspicious.

Don’t rush to judgment: Take into account all the circumstances of the signing. Indications of worry, fear or timidity may not necessarily be the result of coercion. The signer may simply be concerned about the documents or circumstances surrounding the transaction. Consider the possible emotional impact before making a judgment.

What to do if your signer appears unwilling or coerced

If, after going through these steps, you have reason to believe the signer is being pressured into signing against his or her wishes, you should refuse to complete the notarization.

Grounds for refusing a notarization vary between states. Florida does not allow notarizing if the signer appears incapable of understanding the nature of the document at the time of notarization. Massachusetts specifically prohibits Notaries from performing notarizations in which they have a compelling doubt that the signer is acting of his or her own free will. Mississippi and New Mexico allow Notaries to refuse a notarization if the Notary is not satisfied the signer is voluntarily signing. Texas authorizes Notaries to turn down a notarization if the Notary has reasonable grounds to believe the signer is being coerced or the signing party does not have the capacity to understand the contents of the document. 

In North and South Carolina, the Notary certifies that the signer did not appear to be acting involuntarily, under duress or undue influence. Thus, if a signer appears unwilling to sign, North and South Carolina Notaries should refuse the notarization.

States that have adopted the Revised Uniform Law on Notarial Acts (RULONA), (including Iowa, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon and West Virginia), give Notaries the ability to refuse to perform a notarization if they are not satisfied that the signer is willing to sign of their own accord. Georgia law states that a Notary is not obligated to perform a notarization if the Notary feels the signer is being coerced.

If you have questions about the signer’s willingness, make a note in your Notary journal of the steps you took to decide whether to perform the notarization.

If you do not keep a journal, document your reason as well as the steps you took to make your decision.

One final word on notarization safety

If you feel you may be in imminent danger if you refuse a notarization, you should complete it and then report the situation immediately afterward to your local law enforcement.

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Related Articles:

Notary Basics: Determining a signer’s awareness

Additional Resources:

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Add your comment

Roland Smith

08 Jun 2015

The last paragraph says you can notarize the document and then report it. Whom do you report it to?

Concetta Brady-Gleim

08 Jun 2015

Thank you for the helpful info.

John Clark

08 Jun 2015

How about the opposite? That is, the appearance of fraud in the demeanor of the signer. I had a customer come to me for an acknowledgment of his signature over a declaration of intent, to be unsworn, and therefore did not require a jury. It was to do with a separation agreement with his wife, which would require her signature too. The paper he claimed had been prepared by her attorney, but its unprofessional appearance belied that. I walked away.

Khalid M Rana

08 Jun 2015

I agree with explanation. A Notary should make a note mystifying his refusal not to notarized a document.

Sean M Henigan

10 Jun 2015

"One Final Word On Notary Safety: then report the situation immediately afterwards." I would report it to the local law enforcement agency responsible for the jurisdiction of the location where the forced notarization occurred, whether that be the police, sheriff, constable or whomever. Also, that state's Secretary of State, Attorney General, etc. Then, a lawsuit. Of course, I, myself, have a series of legally-allowed steps that I would take in addition to those steps that I have outlined, here. But, I'm not going to specify what those steps are, as they are highly-individualized and not necessarily-appropriate for all persons. My specialized knowledge about the allowances for escalated action are not steps that most people are willing to take. But, if I feel that I'm being threatened in any way, whatsoever, I have the right to pursue the course of action that I feel is most right for me. That is all! JMHO


10 Dec 2015

So if you determine the signer is being coerced, threatened, bullied, etc. into signing the document and you know that if you do not notarize the document, it puts the signer in imminent danger or unfavorable living conditions. This article says to refuse the notarization and report to authorities. In my opinion, I would still notarize the document and report my findings as well. I know a few people in the court system and know I would be directed to the right 'authority' as well as my observation(s) be documented appropriately. Would this be the right thing to do?

31 May 2016

Does the notary reserve the right to "not notarize" upon request if the attorney has all the proper identification? Is there any sanction against a notary for not doing his/her job?

National Notary Association

03 Jun 2016

Hello. Normally a Notary is expected to honor any reasonable request for service if the request is lawful, the signer has all necessary ID and the request is made at a reasonable time. Usually a Notary will only refuse if there is an issue such as the signer lacking proper ID or if the Notary is concerned the signer is unwilling or does not understand what he or she is signing. Can you tell us more about why the Notary wished to refuse this particular request?


06 Jun 2016

I've gotten mixed answers regarding when and when not a Notary may refuse to notarize a document. The NJ Handbook doesn't talk much about it, but elsewhere in the law it explicitly states that any Public Official may refuse to discharge their duties if they have reasonable cause to believe that illegal activity may arise from it, or if they suspect fraud, or any other "compelling" reason not to, but isn't clear what "compelling" means. Also with NJ state law, there seems to be some kind of confusion on what a "public official" is, which would complicate things, since NJ never actually gives a concise definition but has issued contradictory claims. For example, it states that a public official is only someone who is appointed or elected at the state or county level, but that it must generate a source of income for the official. Notaries sometimes get income if they're a signing agent, but not always, so I'm not sure. But a 16 year old volunteer firefighter was charged with "official misconduct" after starting a fire 5 years ago (in addition to being charged with arson). All in all, I think the laws need some clarity....


05 Jun 2017

Good explaination

Christi Causey

12 Jun 2017


Myrna Ayala Rivera

31 Jul 2017

This is something that has become more often everyday. We must keep alert.

Constance Smith

19 Jul 2018

i signd a quiit rlas fopr our hom under dures after divorce. he sold home in2015 for great profit. wont speak to me now. i think h should pay me what i put into home before i found he was a cereal cheater. bhe litrally lead me by the hand to title company and paperwork was already filledout, no judge, people that worked in office were staring as if they couldnt believe it. he scammed me when i never made him buy me out!

Teresa Gyure

20 May 2019

Most of the information above proves that RON is not a good thing. How can you check the room? How would you know for sure if they are alone when you are questioning? These questions alone should be enough to refrain from RON.

Ofie Seymore

03 Sep 2019

In response to notarizing a document where an injured person can only nod and cannot sign. I would refuse. I would agree to come back for free when he is able to sign That is what I would do

Deborah Planet

07 Jun 2021

Imminent Danger in CA should be if you are in any danger you should call signing service or title and report it immediately And Leave!!!!!!!!!!! Report to police in your car!!!! This is real threat or yelling and threatening you in any shape or form. Let’s change this in California please!!!!

13 Jul 2021

Read through California's 2021 Notary Public Handbook reorganized the information in cake recipe format to help me stay out of trouble with the law, looked very carefully for requirements to verify signer's willingness to sign and awareness of the situation, and found nothing addresses on this topic. If this issue is addressed in the handbook, then would somebody please refer me to the exact page numbers and phrases on this topic. I see no address on consequences for cooperating or refusing to cooperate with such undue influence. Ask an attorney? Not at $500 and hour.

Joe Ewing

30 May 2022

For those of us that advertise mobile notary services, how many times have you thought the caller had been turned down repeatedly and was just looking for an inexperienced notary to preform an illegal act?

Daniel Lovejoy

30 May 2022

I have refused to notarize 3 documents during my time as a notary. One, a woman who didn't speak much English was being pressured by two men to just sign it. Second, a man in a hospital who was being told to sign a power of attorney for financial purposes who didn't understand why he needed to sign to give permission to his nephew. Third, a woman who was told by her out of state husband to sign a form that would allow him to sell her property (including the house she was living in) without notifying her of the sale. Because of her distress, I suggested she contact an attorney.

Federico Marin

27 Mar 2023

How can I prove my previouse landlord colluded with the storage company I employed to store my belongings when I moved out of his house. Over a week after storing my items, reps from the storage facility repeatedly blew up my phone and sent multiple emails urging me to sign the insurance papers or my belongings risked being stolen or damaged. After reading the looooong agreement I refused to sign. This contract seemed more like a tenant/landlord agreement. They continued to insist and even refused my from removing any items from the unit I had already over-paid for untill I signed the "necessary documents".

National Notary Association

27 Mar 2023

Hello. We're sorry, but any questions regarding resolving a legal dispute would need to be answered by a qualified attorney.


22 May 2023

So I'm in Florida. You're stating we can refuse to notarize a document if the signer is unfamiliar with the document at the time. Are you saying we don't have the right to refuse if we feel the signer is being coerced??

National Notary Association

22 May 2023

Hello. Florida law states the following: “A notary public may not notarize a signature on a document if it appears that the person is mentally incapable of understanding the nature and effect of the document at the time of notarization” (FS 117.107[5]). “A notary public may not take the acknowledgment of or administer an oath to a person whom the notary public actually knows to have been adjudicated mentally incapacitated by a court of competent jurisdiction, where the acknowledgment or oath necessitates the exercise of a right that has been removed pursuant to [FS] s. 744.3215(2) or (3), and where the person has not been restored to capacity as a matter of record” (FS 117.107[4]). This does not mean a Florida Notary cannot refuse a notarization if the Notary has reason to believe the signer is being forced to sign against their wishes. The Governor's website and the state Reference Manual for Notaries state the following regarding refusals: “Q: Can I refuse to provide notary services? – A: Yes, a notary may refuse to perform a notarization. The situations in which a notary must refuse are set forth in the Florida Statutes sections 117.05 and 117.107” (Executive Office of the Governor’s website, “FAQ). “If you are asked to provide notary services and would like to refuse, you may wish to consult with an attorney regarding any concerns you may have in providing the requested notary services” (RMN).

Helen S Christmas

20 May 2024

Thank you. Very informative. Experienced this.

Betty Reedy

20 May 2024

I wouldn't accept it.because it's again the law.

Deborah Williams

20 May 2024

Many factors to consider, as others have shared. Per GA Notary Law: "Notary is not obligated to perform a notarization if the Notary feels the signer is being coerced." RE recommendation to "Speak privately with the signer: If you feel the signer is being pressured by others in the room, ask to be left alone to speak privately with the signer. Observe if the signer’s behavior changes, or if they continue to hesitate."--I would tread carefully here. Since I work in healthcare, I am always observing for ANY EVIDENCE of coercion, abuse, etc. Even if there is a valid concern of coercion, the unwilling party may still admit to willingness. We have to remember, that the person could be harms way when they leave the office/meeting. Those coercing may punish and blame because the Notary refused to sign under the law.

Judy C Johnson

23 May 2024

How is due caution being carried out when performing a RON? How can the NP determine if there is someone "behind the scenes" exerting pressure? I think there is a lot of risk with RON transactions, not even taking into account technology fraud.

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