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Notary Bulletin

Notary Essentials: Using Credible Identifying Witnesses

credible-witness-resized.jpgUpdated 11-13-20. Identifying signers is the Notary's number one duty. If a Notary can't identify a signer, the notarization can't take place. So what do you do if the signer lacks a driver's license or other forms of satisfactory ID? One option permitted in some states is to have one or more credible witnesses who can vouch for the signer's identity. 

Notaries often have questions about using credible identifying witnesses because many states don’t provide detailed rules. Here are tips for dealing with questions and gray areas regarding credible witnesses:

What Is A Credible Identifying Witness?

A credible identifying witness is an individual who knows and can verify the identity of a signer.

The witness appears at the time of the notarization and takes an oath or affirmation before the Notary that the signer is who they claim to be but lacks other forms of ID. Essentially, a credible identifying witness serves as a human ID card for the signer.

Typically, an identifying witness must personally know the signer and the Notary. Texas, for example, permits the use of a single credible witness who is personally known to the Notary. However, some states, such as California and Florida, permit the use of two credible identifying witnesses who aren’t known by the Notary personally but do know the signer and present proof of their own ID (such as a driver’s license).

What If The Witness Is A Family Member?

Being related to the signer doesn’t automatically disqualify a witness, but several states have laws stating that an identifying witness must be “impartial” (Mississippi and New Mexico) or be unaffected by the transaction (Massachusetts, Nebraska and North Carolina). Witnesses in California and Florida must swear as part of their oath that they do not have a financial interest in, nor are parties to, the underlying transaction. Depending upon the nature of the transaction, a close family member may not qualify to be a credible identifying witness.

For example, if a person asks you to notarize a document transferring ownership of a vehicle from the signer to his father, the father would not be “credible” as a witness because he stands to benefit from the transaction. However, if the father isn’t named in the title transferring the vehicle, he could serve as a witness.

How Well Should The Witness Know The Signer?

Technically, this isn’t the Notary’s call. If you personally know a credible identifying witness you may also know that the witness also knows the signer. However, you do not have a duty to investigate the relationship between a signer and witness. Your only duty is to properly administer the oath or affirmation compelling the witness to swear or affirm that he or she knows the signer. (Of course, if the witness lies in swearing to know the signer, the witness will be subject to the penalty of perjury.) 

What Kind Of ID Can I Accept From A Witness? 

Many states that allow only one credible identifying witness require the witness to be personally known by the Notary. In these states, witnesses are not required to present ID. However, in some states — such as Arizona, IowaNorth Dakota, Oregon and West Virginia — one witness may present an identity document.

In these states as well as the states that allow for two identifying witnesses, a witness’s ID must come from the same statutory list of acceptable IDs that applies to the signer.

In states that don’t specify a particular form of ID, you may accept the same type of ID that you would ask of any signer. 

Kelle Clarke is a Contributing Editor with the National Notary Association.

Unsure how to perform a notarization? Want to brush up on your skills? Notary Essentials can give you the expertise you need to perform the most common notarial acts in your state with ease and accuracy.

Additional Resources:

NNA Hotline

View All: Best Practices


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19 Oct 2015

Is there a time limit/deadline in which a notary must notarize an executed mortgage document? Doesn't 145 days seem excessive?

National Notary Association

20 Oct 2015

Hello. As long as the signer shows up before the Notary to acknowledge signing the mortgage, the requirement for an acknowledgment has been met. We are not aware of any imposed deadline for notarization such as "145 days," but one thing that should be kept in mind is that the loan will have a rate lock. If the borrower doesn't sign the documents (including the mortgage) within the window of time determined by the lender, the rate lock will expire and the rate could possibly go up (or down).

Maria Barraza

10 Oct 2016

Love this articles that freshmen up our knowledge


06 Feb 2017

This was good for me, I kinda knew how to do a credible witness but wasn't sure about if they were related, had an issue come up and the mother was not a recipient of any personal gain so I used the "credible witness" form that I got from you (very short and easy to add to the document) so I did it right. Now know for sure, Thank you for putting these quizzes in as well. You guys are great!!!!

Karen Marshall

21 May 2017

When the credible identifying witness completes the affidavit, does that form remain with the document being executed by the signer or does the notary need to retain the affidavit for our records?

National Notary Association

22 May 2017

Hello. State rules regarding use of credible witnesses vary. To help us provide you with the correct information for your jurisdiction, can you please tell us what state you are commissioned in?


22 May 2017

Credible Witness for the state of Md, could not find information in the handbook if this is allowed.

National Notary Association

23 May 2017

Hello. Maryland does not provide guidelines for the use of credible identifying witnesses. The state Handbook for Notaries Public says, "“Satisfactory proof is that amount of proof which is sufficient to convince the notary public that the person making the acknowledgment is the person described in the document, and the one who executed it. A good rule for a notary public to follow would be to require such proof of identification as he or she would require to cash a very large check for that person."

John Axt

09 Oct 2017

In Florida, the use of a single credible witness known to both the subject and the notary is authorized under the law. Two credible witnesses must used if the notary does not know them. There is also an affidavit that the credible witnesses sign. This should be kept by the notary.

Francine Arcoleo

09 Oct 2017

How can I get a copy of the Credible Witness form? Thanks.

National Notary Association

10 Oct 2017

Hello Francine. A credible witness is simply a method of identification-essentially a "human ID card." It is not a separate notarial act.

Gerard Ashton

09 Oct 2017

My state (VT) has no requirement that the signer lack identification documents, and the credible witness need not swear to a lack of identification documents. Situations where this could come up would be the identification documents having a different version of the name, or the document with the right version of the name being inaccessible (say, in a safe deposit box).


08 Oct 2018

New California notary here. I would fill out an affidavit for the credible witness, then do I do an acknowledgement form fot whatever the signer signs as well? Does the affidavit stay with the document or should I keep it in my files?

National Notary Association

08 Oct 2018

Hello. Just to clarify, you do not need to fill out separate Notary certificate wording for a credible identifying witness, because you are not notarizing for the witness--only the signer the witness is identifying. You would complete the appropriate statutory certificate wording for the notarization required by the signer, and record in your journal that the signer was identified by one or more credible identifying witnesses. Essentially, you should think of the credible witness as a human ID card being used to identify the primary signer. For more information on credible witnesses in CA, please see here:

albert a stiga

09 Oct 2018

Is Missouri a credible witness state

National Notary Association

10 Oct 2018

Hello. Missouri Notaries may identify a signer using two credible identifying witnesses (RSMo 442.200). The names and places of residence of these credible witnesses must be inserted on the certificate (RSMo 442.210).

Rita rita

12 Oct 2018

In my country,indonesia, we use ID or pasport.. cannot use driving lisence.. And no matter what, we must have two witnesses.. And no matter what, we have to use two


13 Mar 2019

can a minor use creditable witness ?

National Notary Association

15 Mar 2019

Based on what you’ve described, we think it would be best if you contacted our Hotline team by phone and provided them with a more detailed description of the situation. The NNA Hotline: 1-888-876-0827 Mon – Fri: 5:00 a.m. – 7:00 p.m. (PT) Saturday: 5:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. (PT) If you’re not an NNA Member or Hotline Subscriber, they will provide you with a one-time courtesy call.

Alexander Chan

23 Aug 2019

Want to confirm in California, using a Credible Witness can remedy name discrepancy. Due to time and life changes, Client ID has shorter version of name on document to be notarized.

National Notary Association

23 Aug 2019

Hello. In California, a signer may only use credible identifying witnesses if the signer possesses no other form of ID and is unable to obtain other ID. For more information, please see here:

Jerry Lucas

14 Oct 2019

Some states do not allow using a credible witness. Some states allow a credible witness to identify the signer with a verbal sworn statement. Some states require a credible witness to sign a sworn notarized affidavit. I did research on this topic and wrote a detailed article at


30 Aug 2020

In New York State, can you have two credible witnesses to notarize a document when the signer does not have proper identification?

National Notary Association

01 Sep 2020

Hello. New York does not set statutory guidelines for acceptable signer ID. The New York Notary License Law guide published by the Department of State says the following: “The thing to be known is the identity of the person making the acknowledgment with the person described in the instrument and the person who executed the same. This knowledge must be possessed by the notary (Gross v. Rowley, 147 App. Div. 529), and a notary must not take an acknowledgment unless the notary knows or has proof that the person making it is the person described in and who executed the instrument (People v. Kempner, 49 App. Div. 121). It is not essential that the person who executed the instrument sign his name in the presence of the notary.”


02 Sep 2020

Hello, can you please clarify these statements in layman’s term. Thanks New York does not set statutory guidelines for acceptable signer ID. The New York Notary License Law guide published by the Department of State says the following: “The thing to be known is the identity of the person making the acknowledgment with the person described in the instrument and the person who executed the same. This knowledge must be possessed by the notary (Gross v. Rowley, 147 App. Div. 529), and a notary must not take an acknowledgment unless the notary knows or has proof that the person making it is the person described in and who executed the instrument (People v. Kempner, 49 App. Div. 121). It is not essential that the person who executed the instrument sign his name in the presence of the notary.”

National Notary Association

03 Sep 2020

Hello. As stated in the first sentence you quoted, New York does not set statutory guidelines for ID. That means New York does not provide a list of specific IDs Notaries can accept from signers and does not require specific elements in a signer ID to make the ID acceptable.

Norma J Montalvo

14 Oct 2020

Hello, I work in a retirement home and a resident needs a document notarized and needs 2 witnesses. Can employees be witnesses to the residents will?

National Notary Association

16 Oct 2020

Hello. We're sorry, but that's a legal question that would need to be answered by a qualified attorney.

Gary M Twing

13 Nov 2020

In CA when using credible witnesses do I add their info and have them sign for every notarization in my journal that I perform for the person that they are being the credible witnesses for?

National Notary Association

13 Nov 2020

Hello. Please see this article for more information:

Lisa Myers

01 Dec 2020

Why about Arkansas? I can’t find detailed enough explanations. I have a home bound client.

National Notary Association

02 Dec 2020

Hello. Arkansas does not provide statutory guidelines for the use of credible identifying witnesses. According to the Arkansas Secretary of State's website, the Secretary of State’s Office recommends using a government issued identification card that includes the client/signer’s picture and signature, such as a driver’s license or passport.

Lisa Myers

02 Dec 2020

Arkansas doesn’t do credible witnesses I was informed by you guys. What does the elderly that are home bound do for notarizations ?

National Notary Association

04 Dec 2020

Hello. The following is from the "Identification" section of the Arkansas Notary Public & eNotary Handbook ( published by the Secretary of State's office: "It is advised to require some form of photographic identification, unless the notary personally recognizes the person whose signature is to be notarized. Nothing is specified in Arkansas law concerning “acceptable” identification. However, it is your responsibility to ensure that the identification presented to you satisfactorily proves the identity of the person appearing before you at the time of notarization. A government issued identification card that includes the signer’s picture and signature is recommended."

Erin Hardin

23 Dec 2020

Is Nevada a credible witness state?

National Notary Association

04 Jan 2021

Hello. Nevada permits Notaries to identify a signer using a credible witness: “‘Credible witness’ means a person who: “1. Swears or affirms that the signer of a document is the person whom he or she claims to be; and “2. Is known personally to the signer of the document and the notarial officer” (NRS 240.0025). The credible witness must be present at the time of notarization (NRS 240.1655[4]). An oath or affirmation administered by a Notary to a credible witness must be in substantially the following form: “Do you (solemnly swear, or affirm) that you personally know ___________ (name of person who signed the document) (so help you God)?” (NRS 240.1655[5]).

Ahmad Ford

23 Feb 2021

Hello, do I have to inform client she needs a credible witness for a document that need notarization or is this practicing law?

National Notary Association

25 Feb 2021

Hello. If a signer lacks satisfactory identification options such as a driver's license, you may describe other acceptable identification options (such as credible identifying witnesses) and let the signer choose which they wish to use. However, you should not attempt to advise the signer regarding any witness requirements for the document itself, as that would be unauthorized practice of law.

12 Apr 2021

California: Such debate with colleagues with regard to using a credible witnesses when someone simply hasn’t bothered to get a new ID. Say, a name change because of marriage, or just too busy to get it done. It’s the “unable to obtain ID” that is causing different interpretations. Mostly happening with loan signings. Notary gets there and signer doesn’t have ID in their name. Thoughts?

Torina Perez

16 Jun 2021

Hello, I have no way of identifying myself to get a birth certificate and I'm aware of credible witnesses. Quick question though, is the signing where I'm with the two witnesses separately done or does a notary have to be present for these signings to take place? Also, is this a paper or form that I'm supposed to print out? I looked up and I was a bit confused.

National Notary Association

17 Jun 2021

Hello. Credible witnesses serve as identification for a signer during a notarization if the signer has no other acceptable form of ID they can present to the Notary. Essentially, a credible witness is a "human ID card" during a notarization. Being identified by a credible witness is part of the notarization, and cannot take place separately from the Notary.

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