Your Cookies are Disabled! sets cookies on your computer to help improve performance and provide a more engaging user experience. By using this site, you accept the terms of our cookie policy. Learn more.

NSA Tip: Signature Witnesses … Why and When

Notary Signing Agent tip signature witnesses

Update 7-25-22. As a Notary Signing Agent, regardless of where you hold your commission, you could be presented with a deed, mortgage or deed of trust for notarization that requires a witness (or witnesses). But in your state, signature witnesses may not be required. Who makes the rules?

First, let’s be very clear that a signature witness and a credible witness are not the same things. While a credible witness is used to identify the signer, a signature witness is only present to witness the signing of the document. Neither is a signature witness the same as a witness to a signature by mark made by a signer with a physical disability who cannot write his or her name.

Rather, a signature witness is sometimes required for recording a deed or mortgage related to real property. The requirement is dictated by the state where the document will be recorded, not the state where the signing occurs. You could hold a Notary commission in a state that requires extra witnesses, and it will be your regular practice to obtain the signatures of witnesses on documents. Or, you could hold a commission in a state that does not require witnesses but be asked to obtain additional signatures of witnesses for a deed or mortgage that will be recorded in a state that does.

So, which states require signature witnesses? There are five states: Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and South Carolina.

Since the combination of state of record with state of signing may change what you can or can’t/should or shouldn’t do, knowing what to consider is key.

Know Your Responsibilities:

  • The issuing agency is responsible for providing clear instructions about witnesses to the Signing Agent. That said, it is the Notary’s responsibility to obtain the necessary signatures of witnesses on the documents when required.
  • The signer provides the witness, not the Signing Agent.
  • All five states except Georgia require two witnesses.
  • In certain states you can act as both Notary and witness, while in others you can’t. In Connecticut, Florida and South Carolina, the Notary may act as a witness; in GeorgiaLouisiana and Michigan the Notary may not.
  • For Notaries with commissions in a state not requiring additional witnesses, take note that some states allow the Notary to be a witness, while certain states do not. The District of Columbia and Maine have strong recommendations against it, while Georgia, Kansas and Washington restrict it outright.
  • Signature witnesses do not need to be identified and their signatures are not notarized.

Be Prepared to Handle the Situation

As with any signing assignment, taking time to prepare will save you, and your signers, potential headaches.

  • Prescreen your documents prior to the signing to see if a witness is required.
  • Carefully read all instructions from your contracting company related to required witnesses.
  • If you’re unsure if witnesses are required, take the initiative and ask your contracting company about it.
  • Be clear about your own state’s permissions and restrictions about a Notary acting as a witness.
  • Be sure the signer knows they must have witnesses to attend the signing.

Final Tips 

Although the individual with the signer is a signature witness and not a credible witness, the NNA suggests you add the witness’s name to the additional information or notes section of your journal.

Even in the limited situations when a Notary can also witness the document, don’t serve as both unless absolutely necessary, and don’t volunteer to be both Notary and witness. Having an additional set of eyes witnessing the signature could be helpful if some part of the transaction is questioned in the future.

Additional Resources:

Signing Agent Tools



Add your comment

Carolyn Lipnick

30 Oct 2017

You should not gear this ONLY to Notary Signing Agents. I have a document from a Florida insurance company where we need 2 signature witnesses AND a notarization in order to get paid our auto claim. I thought it was overkill until I read your article.

Jack Crawford

30 Oct 2017

I am a regular Notary in CA, not a NSA. Do these same rules apply to regular Notaries? We get documents that include places for witnesses to sign as well. Some indicate they want either two witnesses or a notarization. Some indicate they want both 2 witnesses and a notarization. Some do not specify. Also, some indicate the Notary can be a witness. Some say the Notary cannot be a witness. Others give no instructions re: witnesses. Can you provide some guidelines for these situations?

Vicki Huddleston

08 Nov 2019

I used to do witness signings for your company, how do I get started again, my record is excellent and I'm familiar with the process. I would love to get involved again. Thank you so much!

Phoebe Saffold

12 Aug 2020

Still don't know what the qualifications are to be a witness. Do I, the notary, have to verify the witness's credentials? Does the witness have to be a personal acquaintance of the Principal, or can the witness be a random stranger. Do I have to keep copies of the witness' identification? Does witness have to be present physically at the time of notarization?

National Notary Association

12 Aug 2020

Hello. As stated in "Know Your Responsibilities" above, the issuing agency is responsible for providing clear instructions about witnesses to the Signing Agent.

Edward D Cosden

27 Aug 2020

What is the authority that permits a notary in Connecticut to also act as a signature witness?

National Notary Association

27 Aug 2020

Hello. Information on CT Notaries acting as both a document witness and a Notary comes from the state's Notary Public Manual, page 12, section 4.16, Qualification: "A notary is disqualified from performing a notarial act if the notary is a signatory of the document to be notarized. Persons who only witness the signing of a document are not considered to be signatories and, therefore, may also perform notarial acts in connection with documents they have witnessed." You can access the PDF of the Manual here:

Felicia Slattery

11 Jan 2021

In the state of Tennessee where witnesses are not required on the Deed of Trust, I almost always get a signature page that is a template with two lines for witnesses. I generally ignore them and have the signers sign where appropriate, I notarize their signatures and we move on. If a signer asks if they needed witnesses I've been simply saying, "They're not required in the state of Tennessee." Is that proper? I would like to see an article addressing this specific situation since most states do not require a witness, but I imagine many large multi-state title companies are using the same docs and including those witness lines for the times they are needed. The NNA hotline advised that on the occasions when a signer does ask about the blank witness lines, I am not to answer that they are not needed in our state and to suggest they call the title company to ask them. The issue is, I rarely get a title company to answer a question during a closing. So then what? Can you please help?

National Notary Association

02 Feb 2021

Hello. When the document being notarized has lines for witnesses, witnesses should always be present and sign in that area even when not required in the state where the notarization is taking place. The reasons are: 1) The documents being notarize may have to be filed in a state where a signature is required. If witnesses do not sign, the documents will not be allowed to be recorded. 2) Even in states that do not require witnesses, the lender may have an internal policy requiring the documents to be witnessed.


15 Jun 2021

Florida does not require witness signatures on the mortgage, please correct this article.

National Notary Association

06 Jul 2021

Hello. Florida requires witnesses for recorded documents. Mortgages are not typically recorded.

Margaret Cox

27 Aug 2021

In the state of Maine, are witness signatures required if a document is notarized? Where can I find an answer to this question? Thank you.

National Notary Association

30 Aug 2021

Hello. Any instructions for witnessing would need to be provide by the signer or the issuing or receiving agency. It is not the Notary's responsibility to determine witnessing requirements for a document.

Mary Van Belois

16 Oct 2021

Can witnesses be related to the person signing the affidavit in Louisiana before a notary?

National Notary Association

29 Oct 2021

Hello. We would recommend contacting a qualified Louisiana attorney to answer this question.


15 Mar 2022

If a mortgage is notarized in Virginia but recorded in Florida, does it need to have two witnesses?

National Notary Association

22 Mar 2022

Hello. You would need to contact the lender or title company to request instructions on this matter.


07 Apr 2022

Can you site the South Carolina authority that allows a notary to also be a witness? I haven’t found this language.

National Notary Association

22 Apr 2022

There is no law in South Carolina that addresses a Notary acting as a witness. That being the case, it up to the Notary as to whether he/she wishes to act as Notary and as a signature witness.

Galen Masdon

03 Jun 2022

Michigan doesn't allow the notary to witness and notarize the same document. Please update your article to reflect this.

National Notary Association

09 Jun 2022

Hello. We've added the Michigan information to the article.

Terri L Poster-Taylor

08 Aug 2022

FlorIda DOES NOT require two witnesses on the mortgage. I have the court ruling to prove it! Some lenders will still require 2 witnesses on the mortgage, some require only one, most understand witnesses are not needed at all. My experience tells me that usually the lender will want one or two witnesses on a Florida mortgage for the purchase but rarely require witnesses for a refinance or HELOC. I always ask title what the preference of a particular lender is regarding witnesses. (Usually it is none needed)

National Notary Association

06 Sep 2022

Florida does require two witnesses for documents that will be recorded. The mortgage in the situation you describe is not recorded.

James Patterson

16 Aug 2022

This is a great article and information per usual so thank you! In Gwinnett County, GA Deeds require 2 witnesses in order to be recorded and the instructions allow for the Notary to serve as a witness. The way the documents are written it also states that the notary is one of the witnesses.


21 Aug 2022

Michigan Law DOES allow a notary to be a signature witness. The confusion is one can NOT acknowledge their own signature. A Michigan Self-Proved Will requires two signature witnesses and their signatures to be acknowledge by a Notary. In that scenario it is illegal, Please cite where in MiLONA it says you can not do this? It does not, the SOS office incorrectly states it as it is illegal. Most deeds/mortgages I have seen from out of state only require the Grantor's signature to be acknowledge and not any witnesses so absent of anything in MiLONA (as it is SILENT on the matter) there is nothing illegal about it. Only would be illegal if you have to notarize the witnesses signatures as well as MiLONA DOES prohibit a Notary from notarizing his/her own signature.

National Notary Association

06 Sep 2022

When a Notary acknowledges a signature, it means that they are Notarizing the signature. In last wills, the signatures of witnesses are typically Notarized. In most deeds/mortgages, witnesses signatures are not typically Notarized. Since the witnesses have to be “acknowledged by a Notary” – this means that their signatures are being Notarized. Since it is illegal for a Notary to notarize their own signature, a Notary may not act as a witness in any situation where a witness signature is to be Notarized. “A notary public shall not do any of the following: “(a) Perform a notarial act upon any record executed by himself or herself. “(b) Notarize his or her own signature. “(c) Take his or her own deposition or affidavit” (MCL 55.291[2]).

Darlene Stokes

28 Aug 2022

I live in South Carolina. I just became a notary. I have ask this question many times and no one seem to give me the correct answer. As a loan sighning agent can you do a loan sighning without a lawyer instead have 2 witness or a witness. I know lawyer is not available on the weekends for a loan sighning. If I do have to have a lawyer can it be facetime. Do you have to have a lawyer for all different types of loans.

National Notary Association

07 Sep 2022

South Carolina is regarded as an “attorney-only” state, and, by judicial rule, Notary Signing Agents and other nonattorneys are not permitted by themselves to act at a closing. “In South Carolina, notaries public are not permitted to conduct real estate or mortgage loan closings without an attorney present. While some states do allow for notaries to conduct a closing without an attorney, the South Carolina Supreme Court has clearly stated that an attorney must conduct all real estate and mortgage loan closings. Mortgage refinancing is also subject to this rule” (South Carolina Notary Public Online Manual).

30 Aug 2022

Why would companies ask the Notary(Signing Agent) to bring and provide a witness when it is not the Notaries responsibility? It is contradictory to say it is the clients responsibility, then tell the Notary it is up to them. If the Notary provides the witness and has to pay such witness how is the witness neutral?

Christine kelly

12 Oct 2023

I am already a notary and just signed up to take the exam for becoming a signing agent. My question is do I use the same stamp or will i need a different stamp??

National Notary Association

12 Oct 2023

Hello. You would use your official Notary seal regardless of what type of documents you are notarizing.

Jessica Carpenter

07 Jan 2024

I've been in the mortgage industry for 20 years and live in Florida.. most mortgages are most definitely recorded as a matter of public record. I've never seen or heard of a need for 2 witnesses on a recorded mortgage in Florida. Both of my own mortgages, signed in Florida, do not have 2 witnesses - only 1 (the notary) and both are recorded. Either a massive amount of people, including the recording offices who accept and record mortgages without 2 witnesses, are not following the law, or this article is wrong.


28 Jan 2024

Why, if a witness is not needed in FL, did my notary sign her husbands name in front of us? Is that ok?

National Notary Association

29 Jan 2024

Based on what you’ve described, we think it would be best if you contacted our Hotline team by phone and provided them with a more detailed description of the situation. The NNA Hotline: 1-888-876-0827 Mon – Fri: 5:00 a.m. – 7:00 p.m. (PT) Saturday: 5:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. (PT) If you’re not an NNA Member or Hotline Subscriber, they will provide you with a one-time courtesy call.

Leave a Comment

Required *

All comments are reviewed and if approved, will display.