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5 sound practices that steer you clear of lawsuits and costly errors

A notary stamps a document for a customer

Updated 9-26-23. It's easy to make a mistake when notarizing which can lead to lawsuits. Notaries should never skip proper procedures, even if a signer demands it. Following the recommended practices below greatly reduces your chances of getting into legal trouble:

1. Always require personal appearance
2. Master identification requirements
3. Avoid pressure to rush notarizations
4. Scan and complete the Notary certificate properly
5. Know how to handle emotional signers

1. Always require personal appearance

Before you can notarize someone’s signature, the signer must personally appear before you. Almost every state defines that as face-to-face, in the same room. That’s the only way you can verify that your signers are who they say they are, signing of their own free will and fully aware of what’s happening.

[Note: A number of states have enacted rules for remote online notarizations. For more information, please see our Remote Online Notarization FAQ. You can also visit our NNA Knowledge Center Remote Notarization information page for more details.]

Newer Notaries are often tripped up by this requirement, especially when a signer asks them to make ‘just one exception’. But you need to stick to your guns. Be pleasant and straightforward when you tell your client that all signers must appear in person, at the time of the notarization, and not before or after — but be firm.

An Important Message For Notaries. (Updated 9-26-23)

Notaries may receive requests from customers asking you to bend the rules due to COVID or other health issues to accommodate signers who can't be physically present, lack ID or otherwise asking you to ignore proper procedures. Remember that you must still follow all requirements of state law when notarizing. Ignoring proper notarization procedures invites the risk of fraud and serious potential civil and criminal penalties. If you aren't sure about a signer's request, please contact your state Notary agency or the NNA Hotline for assistance.

2. Master identification requirements

Most states provide guidelines on what constitutes acceptable ID from a signer, so make sure you’re familiar with them. Some states, like Florida and California, list the specific identification documents Notaries may accept in state law. Other states permit Notaries to accept any ID that meets state requirements — for example, Texas allows Notaries to accept an ID issued by the federal or any state government that is current and includes the person's photo and signature. Check your official Notary handbook, if your state publishes one. NNA members also can check the online U.S. Notary Reference Manual.

Once you’re clear on which IDs you may accept, always be careful during notarizations to confirm the information on the ID matches your signer’s description — such as eye color and height. And be alert for any discrepancies. Take your time. The NNA Hotline is available to help with any questions.

3. Avoid pressure to rush notarizations

Even experienced Notaries can get rattled when asked to notarize a large number of signatures by a signer or employer who’s stressed and in a hurry. But when you rush, it’s easy to miss a basic step that can invalidate the notarization and even lead to legal or financial consequences later on.

“Make sure you do not allow signers to hurry you at any point,” advises Arizona NSA Kathy Fletcher, the NNA 2013 Notary of the Year. “As a Notary you must be in control. I always check each document after each page is signed and once again before I leave the signer’s location. This universally decreases errors.”

4. Scan and complete the Notary certificate properly

When completing the certificate, make sure all the details are correct. You also should scan the document in order to:

  • Check for blank spaces. Some states mandate there are no blanks on a document and other states just strongly recommend it.
  • Note any details (such as the document title) that your state requires recording in your journal entry.

Scanning the document does not mean reading it for details. Just glance over it sufficiently to get the information you need.

5. Know how to handle emotional signers

Many notarizations can involve stressful situations, especially if the documents involve major financial transactions for your signers — such as deeds, mortgages, trusts and powers of attorney. Any little glitch or speed bump can make signers upset.

While that’s understandable, if the signer is not aware or able to communicate clearly, you have no choice but to refuse to complete the notarization. Some may become upset and frustrated by your refusal.

“When I get rude or anxious clients, I immediately put a calming strategy in place,” says Laura Biewer, an NNA seminar instructor and a traveling Notary. Among her tips:

  • Slow down and allow several minutes to settle in and getting everyone comfortable.
  • Listen more than you think you need to, make eye contact and smile often.
  • Acknowledge your client’s emotions by saying something like, “I understand how this makes you feel.” Be extra sensitive to the stresses that they may be experiencing. 

Paying close attention to your signer and communicating calmly and openly about any confusion can allay anxieties and ensure a successful and pleasant appointment.

Related Articles:

5 Tips When Notarizing For Medical Patients

Additional Resources:

Notary Errors & Omissions Insurance FAQ

View All: Best Practices


Add your comment

Jeanne Fortier

03 May 2016

Had a customer scream at me this morning because I would not notarize her signature on a piece of paper that contained only her signature line and the notary statement. She would not show me what document was to be attached. She said it was none of my business. She also stated she had been a notary and knew I could not request to see the document I was notarizing her signature for. I still stand by my refusal, and unfortunately she will not be a customer here anymore.

Poppy Romero

12 May 2016

I was threatened to be removed forever from a database after refusing to conduct a signing with two misprinted names, one for a man who couldn't even write his own date much less correct his name everywhere it appeared incorrectly and sign in a 200 page refinance file.

Lissette Villacampa

08 Jun 2016

Can I check on my Notary renewal through you? My actual Notary expires this October 2016. Thank you.

National Notary Association

13 Jun 2016

Hello. Please contact our Customer Care team at 1-800-876-6827 and they should be able to assist you.

Hugh (Washington state)

16 Jan 2017

Although Poppy's comment is more amusing, Jeanne's is more instructive: Does a blank document constitute a "document" for acknowledgment? It sounds like it should be considered a form of loose certificate, which should have a description of the companion document, as well as the Notary physically attaching it (stapling) to the actual document.

Nancy Graham

17 Jan 2017

Thank you Hugh, I've seen examples of this and the signer always gives me the document and I attach them. I'm usually familiar with the document since I notarize at work. I don't think I'm doing anything wrong.

Norma Jean Sierra

22 Mar 2017

Hi I really like the comments and general information discussed here. I do have a question. How or where do we go to get information regarding practicing attorneys can and can not do with the notary process? I have lots of questions. For example: can an attorney sign a document as a representative of their client? Can an attorney use a notary's supplies including their stamp? Trying to figure all this out.

National Notary Association

23 Mar 2017

Hi Norma. A Notary's stamp is the sole property of the Notary and no one else is permitted to use the Notary's seal, whether they are an attorney or not. If you have other questions relating to attorneys and Notaries and you are an NNA member, you can email your questions to Non-NNA members can have one question answered at no charge, but further questions require purchasing NNA membership.

Roberta carbone

08 Apr 2017

Can I notarize a signature with same lasts name as me? Can I notarize a relative with the same last name as mine?

National Notary Association

10 Apr 2017

Hi Roberta. To help us answer your question can you please tell us what state you are commissioned in?

Patricia Sheridan

01 May 2017

Do all Notary signatures require use of the Seal? Also, I sometimes am asked to Notarize a document that doesn't have the Notary Signature Block so I just "create my own" is that Okay to do?

National Notary Association

01 May 2017

Hello Patricia. Since different states address this issue differently, can you please tell us what state you are commissioned in?

Lorraine W Pereverziev

01 May 2017

The one thing I would add to this very helpful information is to go through the document or documents you are dealing with at least two times, if not three, to make certain nothing has been overlooked. I often catch things the second time through that I didn't notice on the first scan. It has saved me on many occasions, particularly when dealing with a large number of documents.

Mona Wilder

01 May 2017

I enjoy reading this because there are so many good points and is very helpful. Thank you for sharing this.

Caroline Page

05 May 2017

This information is very helpful. Thanks! I am in Tennessee and have 2 questions: (1) regarding the commission expiration date. Often it is missing from the document. Should we add it? (2) I have not taken the NNA exam because there is so much information to learn so I'm trying to free up more study time. In the meantime, I have received several calls for notary work. When I explained to one caller I was not yet eligible because I had not received my certificate he said I should correct this information in my profile. Is there a profile I need to correct?

National Notary Association

10 May 2017

Hello. A Tennessee Notary’s commission expiration date must appear on every acknowledgment certificate (TCA 8-16-112). If you are an NNA member and have a profile that needs information corrected, please contact our Customer Care team at 1-800-876-6827 and they can assist you.

Lee Medley

23 Apr 2018

In Indiana, is it permissible for a Notary Public to also witness the same document, assuming the Notary has no interest in the subject matter.

National Notary Association

23 Apr 2018

Hello. Please contact our Hotline Team at for assistance with this question. Thanks.


23 Apr 2018

I am so very beyond sick of people asking "well can you make an exception?" when they don't have ID or when they want something notarized without appearing in person. Why? What makes you so special that you can be an exception?

Yukita Manuel

23 Apr 2018

I love coming on the site reading other notary experiences. I now see I'm not the only one experiencing the occasional nut...

James N

23 Apr 2018

I always let the customer know that my directions have to be followed and I will not allow any deviations. I always make sure that every requirement is met before I will print information, sign or attach my seal, including being paid.

Luz Rose

01 Apr 2019

I am in CA. Some times the person who needs to sign understand what she is signing or why, but how about 5 mins later she asked, what are we doing?, the relatives explain...o.k the signer said. It’s that ok to continue? So some minutes the signer is lost- mentally.


01 Apr 2019

“Make sure you do not allow signers to hurry you at any point.” "How long will this take?" is asked more often than you would think. Once the co-borrower wanted to finish so that she could get to a party. I suggest that we all copy the response of retail, "Under promise (time) and Over perform." I tell them that a signing that usually takes 35 minutes Will take 1 1/2 hrs. If they balk, I tell them to call their lender. I will wait. Further, my car was crashed into December, 2017. The city now has a 4 way stop light at this intersection and pedestrians have been run over at this intersection. My $100 signing cost me $500 deductible. I GAVE THAT SIGNING AWAY. I try hard to get to each signing early, but I want to drive there and back in one piece, and I don't speed. My mind is calm when I witness and not vulnerable to a request to rush.

Michelle Riesenberg

01 Apr 2019

My question is a piggy-back to Caroline Page's question on May 5, 2017 regarding her comment and mentioning an NNA exam. I am a notary in the state of Iowa and have been since 2001. I've never taken a NNA exam. Is that a requirement of the state that she is in? Is it necessary for me to take the test?

National Notary Association

03 Apr 2019

Hello. Caroline Page's question was regarding the Notary Signing Agent certification required by some lenders and title companies for the NSAs they work with. Iowa does not require Notary commission applicants to take an exam. However, if you wish to work specifically as a Notary Signing Agent with loan document signings, lenders or title companies you wish to work with may ask you to provide proof of certification and background screening that meets their requirements for third-party vendors.

Anna Hollett

03 Apr 2019

Can I notarize a POA or HCS for my mother in law with my husband and myself named as such. I live in Florida. Thank you

National Notary Association

03 Apr 2019

Hello. Florida Notary law states “A notary public may not notarize a signature on a document if the person whose signature is to be notarized is the spouse, son, daughter, mother, or father of the notary public” (FS 117.107[11]). If you are unsure whether or not you have a possible disqualifying interest in this situation, the safest course is to have another Notary who is not related to the signer perform the notarization.

Reesie Gary

04 Apr 2019

I'm really learning a lot. I've been a notary since 2001 and I got my NSA certification recently. Recently, a customer, who I NEVER met a day in my life, was very irate with his wife because she wanted to separate. He began to say threatening words to her and he accused me of encouraging his wife to do the paperwork and he refused to sign his given name. I diffused the situation by stating that I cannot execute the notarization. Fortunately, I was in a public place and a policeman was on duty there. The couple left before I could gather my things so I waited for them to drive off. My family suggested that when doing sensitive executions like that, ESPECIALLY if I don't know either of the customers, I should go to police departments for safety. I encourage everyone to be careful with separations and divorce situations.


07 Apr 2019

I enjoy reading the interesting questions and responses. It is good to know these thing.

Terry Carrillo

23 Mar 2020

I recently became authorized to notarize online but I am unsure of how to set this up. Can you advise?

National Notary Association

23 Mar 2020

Hello, Terry. If you are commissioned in Florida or Texas, you can find more information here: If you are commissioned in another state, please let us know which state and we will be happy to provide you with further assistance.

John Axt

23 Mar 2020

A number of companies are asking Notaries to drive up get the documents to the borrower let them go inside and sign and then bring them back. This violates the fact that you must be face-to-face and in the same room to notarize documents.


23 Mar 2020

Amen...John Axt. Here in PA the NP law does not allow for video / live stream notarizations. My belief is the few states that do allow this, are setting themselves up to have lots of court disputes. All an attorney has to do is create doubt that the full procedure was not air tight and a lender will possibly lose a mortgage. Also, Jurisdiction could be called into play as to NP and the signer, what states were each in at the time of notarizing. This would mean the NP will be call into court....hopefully, the flight, hotel, motel, and time of from work arent too expensive for those who are willing to venture that avenue. Yeah, the major kinks havent been brought to light yet.

Terry Early

19 Oct 2020

This has been helpful. Thank you.

Michael E Harris

19 Oct 2020

I have had a few borrowers who did not believe that the rules applied to them, but the rest were cooperative since any violence against me ends the signing -- no loan.

Katheryn Brown

25 Oct 2021

I enjoy reading the questions and comments made by others. So much priceless information being shared thank you .


27 Oct 2021

Can I notarized a document in which middle name of the client is wrong but she corrects herself in front of me and initials next to .

National Notary Association

29 Oct 2021

Based on what you’ve described, we think it would be best if you contacted our Hotline team by phone and provided them with a more detailed description of the situation. The NNA Hotline: 1-888-876-0827 Mon – Fri: 5:00 a.m. – 7:00 p.m. (PT) Saturday: 5:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. (PT) If you’re not an NNA Member or Hotline Subscriber, they will provide you with a one-time courtesy call.


27 Oct 2021

Hello , Can I notarize the documents in which middle name of the client is different from the id but they corrected it by putting a line and initials next to it . Rest everything matches ,including address.

National Notary Association

29 Oct 2021

Based on what you’ve described, we think it would be best if you contacted our Hotline team by phone and provided them with a more detailed description of the situation. The NNA Hotline: 1-888-876-0827 Mon – Fri: 5:00 a.m. – 7:00 p.m. (PT) Saturday: 5:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. (PT) If you’re not an NNA Member or Hotline Subscriber, they will provide you with a one-time courtesy call.

Jeannie M.

09 Oct 2023

I'm a notary in the state of IL. A snotty family member said to me, you are not allowed to notarize any federal document. Is this snot correct?

National Notary Association

09 Oct 2023

Hello. Can you tell us if this statement was referring to any specific documents issued by the federal government (such as immigration documents) or federal documents in general?

Catia Collins-Singleton

09 Oct 2023

I am a notary signing agent in IL. I started off journaling all my jobs but recently sort of fell off the band wagon on this. Legally I need to start back doing this asap? What happened in this if I am missing perhaps the last 15 journals? Yikes!!

National Notary Association

11 Oct 2023

Hello. The new IL journal requirements took effect June 5, 2023. For more information, please see here:

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