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Notaries and impartiality

A person rejecting a document

Updated 2-13-24. One of the most important aspects of a Notary’s duties is serving as an impartial witness to document signings. But what does a Notary need to know to stay impartial? Here are guidelines to help you stay unbiased, along with why impartiality is necessary for Notaries.

Avoiding discrimination against document signers

Notaries are public officials in most states. When you are commissioned as a Notary, that means that you have accepted a duty to provide services when someone makes a reasonable and lawful request for a notarization.

You should not refuse a notarization over matters that amount to discrimination. Standard I-A-4 of The Notary Public Code of Professional Responsibility states, “The Notary shall not refuse to perform a lawful and proper notarial act because of the signer’s race, nationality, ethnicity, citizenship, religion, politics, lifestyle, advanced age, physical disability, gender identity, sexual orientation, or because of disagreement with the statements or purpose of a lawful document.” For example, it is not appropriate to refuse a lawful notarization request because the signer belongs to a political party you disagree with.

In addition, some Notaries have said that they would refuse to notarize a document they personally found objectionable. As the Code states above, disagreeing with a document’s content is not sufficient justification to refuse to serve someone. It’s important to remember that notarizing a document does not mean that you endorse or support the contents of the document. Notarization simply assures that the signature on a document is authentic and can be trusted.

Notary’s inappropriate interest in a document

Obviously, you are going to have problems staying impartial if you are involved in a transaction, or the document provides you with some kind of financial or other material benefits. For example, let’s say you were asked to notarize a friend’s signature on a document gifting a new car to you. If the friend were unable to appear before you, you might be tempted to ignore the law and improperly notarize the document to make sure you get the new car.

This is why many U.S. jurisdictions have laws prohibiting Notaries from notarizing if they have an interest in or benefit from the document, or if the signer is closely related to the Notary. Here are some examples:

Florida prohibits notarizing if the Notary has a financial interest in a document, is a party to the transaction the document relates to, or if the signer is the Notary’s child, spouse or parent (though Florida Notaries are allowed to officiate weddings for family members). However, Notaries may notarize a signature for an employer as the Notary does not receive a benefit other than their normal salary or Notary fee. Florida attorneys who hold a Notary commission are permitted to notarize documents for clients as long as they have no interest in the document other than a standard legal or Notary fee.

California Notaries may not perform a notarial act if they have a direct financial or beneficial interest in a transaction or are named in a transaction. However, a California Notary is permitted to notarize when acting as an agent, employee, insurer, attorney, escrow officer, or lender for a signer with a direct financial or beneficial interest in the transaction.

Pennsylvania prohibits notarizing if the Notary or the Notary’s spouse has a direct or pecuniary interest in the transaction. Notaries are also prohibited from notarizing a power of attorney document if they are named as an agent or serve as a witness to the signing of the power of attorney. 

Nevada law does not allow notarizing when a Notary is a party to a document or would receive a benefit from a document that exceeds the state’s maximum allowed notarization fee. Nevada also has extensive prohibitions against notarizing for relatives, forbidding notarization for a Notary’s spouse or domestic partner, parents, siblings, grandparents or children, including step-relatives, adopted relatives and half-siblings.

The Texas Secretary of State’s website says that notarizations should not be performed by a Notary who is a party to the instrument or financially or beneficially interested in the transaction.

Even if your state law permits notarizing for relatives, it is possible for a signer to challenge the Notary’s impartiality in court if a legal dispute arises over notarizing a family member’s signature on a document. Because of this, Notaries may wish to avoid any question of possible bias by referring relatives to another Notary. In fact, state officials in Montana recommend against notarizing for relatives in the Montana Notary Public Handbook, even though it is allowed by statute: “The Secretary of State’s office cautions that notaries should seriously consider the potential conflicts that may arise over documents which transfer property or rights (titles, deeds, wills, powers of attorney, etc.) among family members. ‘Just because you can, doesn’t mean you should’ are good words to apply in these situations.”

Avoiding bias when notarizing in the workplace

When it comes to notarizing for your employer, impartiality issues are a bit trickier. If your boss asks you to limit your Notary services only to employees or clients of your business, can you do so?

Some states, including California and Texas, permit employers to limit Notary services during business hours. However, the states of Arizona, Hawaii, Iowa, Massachusetts and New Mexico specifically prohibit employers and Notaries from limiting their service to business customers or clients. 

Impartiality and charging Notary fees

Notaries should avoid unfair bias when charging fees. The Code discourages basing a signer’s fee on ethnicity, citizenship, lifestyle, religion or politics (Standard I-B-I). For example, you should not charge a lower fee for those who share your religious beliefs, while charging higher fees for signers who follow other beliefs.

Lowering or waiving a Notary fee for a signer who is in distress or suffering from financial hardship is not considered inappropriate. Many Notaries offer free or reduced fees when serving members of their communities who are in need. Charitable acts do not show unfair bias or compromise a Notary’s impartiality.

David Thun is the Editorial Manager at the National Notary Association.

Related Articles:

When to say ‘no’… and when refusing a notarization is not allowed

View All: Best Practices


Add your comment

Michelle Cioppa

21 Aug 2017

Good information

Michelle Cioppa

21 Aug 2017

Good information


22 Aug 2017

Can a Colorado employer limit what documents I notarize while at work? For instance, only documents our office creates (I work at a law firm)?

National Notary Association

22 Aug 2017

Hello. Colorado Notary law does not specifically address this issue. For more information, we recommend this article:

Lisa White

22 Aug 2017

Good information

Rebecca Aaron-Fowler

06 Aug 2018

If you read the Notarial Handbook you will discover that being bias in anyway is not allowed. I am in WY but sure all states are the same. I have had signing in houses, front porches, hood of cars, coffee tables, and snack tables. After 8.5 years on the job you see things, hear things, and maybe get sick to your stomach but it is part of the job. One thing for sure, when the day is over you get to go home. Safety is my main concern on the job. If I feel unsafe I leave. Thank you for hearing what I have to say on the subject.

Olivia Arizmendi

30 Aug 2018

Hello, How/Where can I report a public notary for discrimination? Thanks

National Notary Association

30 Aug 2018

Hello. If you can please tell us what state you are located in, we can tell you if there is an organization available for you to file a complaint regarding Notary misconduct.


07 Sep 2021

Very informative!

Marco Morto

10 Sep 2021



28 Jun 2022

Where can I report discrimination from a notary in North Carolina?

National Notary Association

30 Jun 2022

Hello. You can contact the NC Secretary of State's Notary Public Section by phone at 1-919-807-2219 or by email at

betty dedman

13 Feb 2023

I remind the signer that I am the professional witness and the contents of their documents is none of my business. This is when they ask my opinion. If not, we talk about the weather, THEIR pets, THEIR hobbies, etc.

Judy Crush

19 Mar 2023

Would it then be a bad idea to offer discounted or free notarization to fellow church members to get out the word on your new business?

National Notary Association

20 Mar 2023

Hello. The important thing when charging fees is not to base what you charge on discriminatory practices. There is nothing wrong with offering discounts to promote your new Notary business. However, it would not be appropriate if you refused some customers a discount because they hold political views you disagree with, for example. You can find recommended guidelines for charging fair fees in The Notary Public Code of Professional responsibility:


30 Mar 2023

Is it a felony for a Notary in Oklahoma to notarize multiple fraud deeds for a spouse when the deeds are putting real property in both their names??

National Notary Association

03 Apr 2023

Based on what you’ve described, we think it would be best if you contacted our Hotline team by phone and provided them with a more detailed description of the situation. The NNA Hotline: 1-888-876-0827 Mon – Fri: 5:00 a.m. – 7:00 p.m. (PT) Saturday: 5:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. (PT) If you’re not an NNA Member or Hotline Subscriber, they will provide you with a one-time courtesy call.

26 Feb 2024

Be honest with deel. I have to do my proer work.

J.D. Walker (VA/7035064)

26 Feb 2024

I'm a Chief Warrant Officer in the Army Reserve. Though I do charge my state's allowed maximum, I waive the fee for my fellow members of the military. Could someone raise a legal issue about that?

National Notary Association

09 Apr 2024

Hello. To help us answer your question, can you please confirm what state you are commissioned in?

Amelia Labrada

26 Feb 2024

Where can I report discrimination from a notary in California?

National Notary Association

29 Feb 2024

Hello. Instructions for filing a complaint against a California Notary with the Secretary of State's office can be found here:


07 Mar 2024

Very good article and information

J.D. Walker (VA/7035064)

09 Apr 2024

I already put my state and my commission number right next to my name. I'm also dual commissioned in MD, for now.

National Notary Association

09 Apr 2024

Thank you. In both Virginia and Maryland, the notarization fee can be waived if the Notary Public wishes to do so. Neither state prohibits Notaries from choosing to perform notarial services at no charge.

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